The Central Intelligence AgencyCIA Formation Espionage Foreign Crises
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CIA FORMATION:ddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn

As World War II ended and tension continued to grow with the Soviet Union, the United States needed a service to provide intelligence on domestic and foreign affairs. The United States had originally looked at the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) for central intelligence. According to Franklin D. Roosevelt the OSS was "Poorly skilled and ill-mannered", leading to the termination of the OSS program. The United Sates was faced with the issue of providing another method of domestic and foreign intelligence. In 1947, President Harry S Truman signed the National Security Act, which provided the United States government the Central Intelligence Agency and the National Security Council. In 1955 the Central Intelligence Agency was funded 46 million dollars to build its headquarters in Langley, Virginia.
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CIA Headquarters Langley, VA


ESPIONAGE:ddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddnn

Espionage: the use of spies by a government to discover the military and political secrets of other nations.
The Central Intelligence Agency's main focus during the Cold War was counter-espionage. The CIA worked alongside spies, tools and technology to gain intelligence on the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union, like the United States had an intelligence program known as the KGB, The CIA and KGB acted as rivals during the Cold War.
A common tactic that was used by both the CIA and KGB was the use of spies and moles. The purpose of CIA spies was to protect the United States by gathering intelligence and to complete covert operations. Moles are double agents who would betray the agency they work for. The most famous instance of the use of moles is the Cambridge Five. In which the Soviet Union hired five British moles. The moles maneuvered their way high up into the British government and into the MI-6 (British Intelligence Agency) in order to release information to the KGB. Another famous instance of espionage is the Rosenberg trial. In which the Rosenberg's were convicted of espionage against the United States in support of the KGB. The Rosenberg's were sent to the electric chair in 1953. In 1990 in was confirmed that Julius had in fact released information on the Manhattan project to the KGB.
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Spy Tool: Olive is disguised tape recorder

Spies can be classified into four categories, shadow, ninja, cloak and dagger. Shadow spies were the most common form of spy working for the CIA. Shadow spies are notorious for their use of eavesdropping, tape recording, photography and for de-coding messages. Shadow spies also work to gain information concerning foreign plans, governments, activities, leaders and intelligence agencies. Ninja spies are sneaky and sly. They are basically your Hollywood portrayal of a spy. They seem unstoppable with the use of strength and intelligence. Cloak spies are known to disguise themselves in order to gain information. They use tools such as tiny cameras, recorders, transmitters, radios and cipher key lists. The dagger spy acts to complete the dangerous CIA activities. Dagger spies will complete killings, raids, kidnappingsand sabotage.

The CIA had highly advanced U-2 aircraft spy planes, used to gain intelligence on the Soviet Union and Cuba. U-2 planes are jet powered reconnaissance aircraft, created to fly at an altitude of 70,000ft. Reconnaissance is when U-2 planes would survey land to gain information. A common task for the CIA was to send agents in U-2 planes over foreign territory, such as the Soviet Union, Cuba, and Asia. The U-2 aircraft could fly at such high altitudes that the foreign enemy could not shoot down the plane. The CIA agents flying the U-2 would then use the act of reconnaissance and photograph the enemy territory in order to gain intelligence and information. CIA agent and pilot Francis Garry Powers was flying at 80,000ft in 1960 when he was shot down by a Soviet SAM-2 missile. He was captured and later released in a spy trade in exchange for Vilyam Fisher.
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Francis Gary Powers

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U-2 Spy Plane















FOREIGN CRISES:dddddddddddddddddddddddddhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhjnnnnnn

During the Cold War, three major events occurred that directly involved the interference of the CIA. First was the CIA involvement with Iran, second was the Bay of Pigs conflict and third was the Cuban Missile Crisis.

1953- Iran:The CIA felt threatened by the Irani leader Mohammed Mossadegh in fear of him nationalizing British Oil. In order to terminate those fears, the CiA overthrew Mohammad and replaced him with the Shah of Iran (dictator).

1961-Bay of Pigs:The CIA felt that the Cuban leader Castro was a threat to the United States. Castro was pro-communistic. In order to end the spread of communism
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Surrendered Cuban Exiles
the CIA developed a plan to overthrow Castro. The CIA trained 1,400 Cuban exiles to attack Cuba. On April 17th the force landed on the Bay of Pigs beach and found themselves under fire. Castro sent 20,000 troops to the beach to finish off the Cuban exile force. 1,200 exiles surrendered and nearly 100 were killed.

1962-Cuban Missile Crisis:When a U-2 mission over Cuba had spotted Soviet supplied nuclear sites, the CIA was immediately informed. October 16, 1962 marked the beginning of the CUban Missile Crisis. The CIA later was informed of Soviet nuclear missiles in Cuba pointed at the United States.

CIA COLD WAR EVENTS:


1947: National Security Act


1953: CIA overthrows Iran government
1955: CIA headquarters built in Langley, VA
April 17,1961:Bay of Pigs
October 16, 1962: Cuban Missile Crisis begins
1979: CIA can not prevent fall of the Shah in Iran
1991: Fall of the Soviet Union
SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT:FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF The Cold War was an eventful time period full of suspicion and distrust. In order to ensure the safety and protection of the United States, it was necessary to create the Central Intelligence Agency. Throughout the Cold War the CIA acted as a source to gather information on foreign and domestic intelligence. With the use of spies, technology and intelligence, the United States was able to remain protected by the CIA. The CIA enabled the United States to be one step ahead of the Soviet's KGB, preventing the rapid spread of communism.
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WORKS CITED:


USA.gov, . "6-12th Grade." Cold War. Central Intelligence Agency, Last Reviewed: Jan 03, 2012 01:06 PM. Web. 1 May 2012. <https://www.cia.gov/kids-page/6-12th-grade/operation-history/cold-war.html>.

. "The Central Intelligence Agency." The COld War Museum. The COld War MUseum, n.d. Web. 1 May 2012. <http://www.coldwar.org/articles/40s/CentralIntelligenceAgencyCIA.asp>.

USA.gov, . "A Look Back-." Remembering the Cuban Missile Crisis. Central Intelligence Agency, Last Reviewed: Oct 12, 2007 06:37 AM. Web. 1 May 2012. <https://www.cia.gov/news-information/featured-story-archive/2007-featured-story-archive/a-look-back-remembering-the-cuban-missile-crisis.html>.

Kangas, Steven. "Timeline of CIA Atrocities." . N.p., 1996. Web. 1 May 2012. <http://www.serendipity.li/cia/cia_time.htm>.

. "On April 17, 1961, 1400 Cuban exiles launched what became a botched invasion at the Bay of Pigs on the south coast of Cuba.." Bay of Pigs. JFK Museum, n.d. Web. 1 May 2012. <http://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/JFK-in-History/The-Bay-of-Pigs.asp&xgt;.

Almanac Vol. 1. 1. 1. .129. Print.("Almanac Vol. 1" .129)

Peebles, Curtis. Shadow Flights: America's Secret Air War against the Soviet Union. Novato, CA: Presidio, 2000.

. "U-2 Spy Plane." Answers.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 May 2012. <http://www.answers.com/topic/u-2-spy-plane>.

USA.gov, . "6-12th Grade." History of American Intelligence. Central Intelligence Agency, Last Reviewed: Jan 03, 2012 01:06 PM. Web. 1 May 2012. <https://www.cia.gov/kids-page/6-12th-grade/operation-history/history-of-american-intelligence.html>.